The PNOE Metabolic Analyzer determines resting metabolic rate (RMR) through a process known as indirect calorimetry.
Indirect calorimetry is a non-invasive method that estimates energy expenditure by analyzing the exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases in the breath.
Here’s a more detailed explanation of how PNOE measures resting metabolism:
- Breath Collection: The individual wears a mask connected to the PNOE Metabolic Analyzer and breathes normally. The mask is designed to collect the exhaled breath during the testing period.
- Gas Analysis: The PNOE device analyzes the concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the exhaled breath. This information is crucial because the body’s metabolism involves the consumption of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide.
- Calculation of Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR): Based on the gas exchange data, the PNOE Metabolic Analyzer calculates the resting metabolic rate. The RMR is the amount of energy expended by the body at rest, representing the calories needed for basic physiological functions like breathing, maintaining body temperature, and supporting cellular processes.
The principle underlying this measurement is the fact that the body’s metabolism involves the breakdown of nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) to produce energy. This process consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide. By analyzing the respiratory gases, the PNOE device can estimate the rates at which these metabolic reactions are occurring, allowing for the calculation of energy expenditure.
It’s important to note that RMR is just one component of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), which also includes the calories burned through physical activity and the thermic effect of food. However, RMR is significant because it accounts for a substantial portion of TDEE and can be useful in designing personalized nutrition and exercise plans for weight management or fitness goals.
- Heart Zones:
- Heart Rate Monitoring: During an exercise test, PNOE likely incorporates heart rate monitoring to assess the individual’s heart rate response to different levels of intensity.
- Heart Rate Zones: By analyzing the relationship between heart rate and exercise intensity, PNOE can determine specific heart rate zones. These zones may include aerobic zones, anaerobic zones, and others, which are often used in training programs to optimize fitness and performance.
- Metabolic Flexibility:
- Substrate Utilization: Metabolic flexibility refers to the ability of the body to switch between different fuel sources (carbohydrates and fats) based on energy demands.
- RQ Measurement: PNOE may use respiratory quotient (RQ) values derived from gas exchange measurements to assess the individual’s metabolic flexibility. Different RQ values indicate the utilization of different fuel sources.
- VO2 Max:
- Oxygen Consumption: PNOE likely measures oxygen consumption (VO2) during the exercise test. VO2 max is the maximum amount of oxygen a person can utilize during intense exercise and is considered a key indicator of aerobic fitness.
- Intensity Gradients: The test may involve increasing exercise intensity until the participant reaches their maximum oxygen consumption. The point at which oxygen consumption plateaus represents the VO2 max.
- Longevity Biological Age:
- Biological Age Estimation: Some advanced testing protocols or algorithms may attempt to estimate a person’s biological age based on various health and fitness parameters.
- Integration of Multiple Metrics: PNOE might consider a combination of physiological markers, such as cardiovascular fitness, metabolic health, and other relevant factors, to provide an estimate of the individual’s biological age and potential longevity.
It’s essential to check the latest information from PNOE or consult directly with the company to get the most accurate and up-to-date details on how their specific exercise testing protocols determine these metrics. Advances in technology and scientific understanding may lead to improvements or modifications in testing methodologies.
The importance of PNOE Training Zones for health and performance
You must have probably heard of heart rate training zones and how elite endurance athletes, and more recently, a growing number of recreational athletes, use them to guide their training.
Why are personalized HEART ZONES important for your training and how each one can help your body evolve in different directions?
What are heart rate zones?
Heart rate training zones reflect your body’s metabolic statuses in different training intensities.
They are heart rate ranges (e.g., 123 – 142 beats per minute), each one corresponding to an exercise intensity, where your body responds metabolically in a specific way.
Two factors determine the metabolic state of your body in each zones:
- The fuel mixture used (i.e., the balance between fats and carbohydrates).
- The physical traits your body develops when training in this zone.
For example, when training in zone 2, your body will burn the most fat and enhance its cellular health fat-burning capabilities at the fastest rate.
What’s our body’s fuel mix, and how does it help determine training zones?
- During exercise, your body typically burns a mixture of fats and carbohydrates to release the energy required (i.e., calories) to move.
- Fat releases more energy than carbs when burnt (i.e., 9 kcal per gram of fat vs. 4 kcal per gram of carbs) but has a slower burning process making it suitable for low exercise intensities where the rate of energy demand is low.
- Carbohydrates, on the contrary, require less time to burn and can therefore support higher exercise intensities where the rate of energy demand is larger.
- The mix of fats and carbohydrates used by your body is revealed by the breakdown of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your breath and is measured through the use of a metabolic analyzer like PNOĒ.
- Since this measurement requires you to wear a mask, information for your body’s fuel usage becomes almost impossible to obtain during everyday training. As a result, we use heart rate as a proxy metric to accurately estimate our body’s fuel usage and metabolic status.
- This is done through a metabolic test whereby measuring heart rate and the fat-carbohydrate mix you can establish the correlation between fuel mix and heart rate.
We refer to this as “getting your personalized training zones”.
However, it’s important to note that the correlation between heart rate and fat-carbohydrate balance depends largely on the type of exercise.
For example, you may be burning 30% fats and 70% carbs at 140 beats per minute when running but only 15% fats and 85% carbs at 140 beats per minute when cycling.
How many training zones do we use? What physiological traits does each one train?
The 5 zones system is the most frequently used one, accurately capturing the difference in metabolic states while remaining practical enough for everyday usage.
Each zone is used for a different purpose as it inflicts different metabolic adaptations on your body.
PNOE Zone 1
Training intensity is typically used for warmup or active recovery (i.e. recovering from intense exercise while moving)
PNOE Zone 2
Zone 2 training will develop your mitochondrial function and improve your fat-burning efficiency. It’s highly recommended for long-range endurance sports as well as for individuals suffering from metabolic syndrome (e.g. Type II Diabetes). The improved mitochondrial function will also significantly support recovery capacity helping you to recover faster after intense bouts of exercise.
PNOE Zone 3
Zone 3 training can help strengthen your pulmonary muscles and improve cardiovascular function. It’s an ideal intensity when suffering from a lung or heart problem since its moderate- intensity offers a strong stimulus to the heart and lungs without being exhausting or overly strenuous.
PNOE Zone 4
Zone 4 training will help improve your VO2max and ability to sustain high-intensity exercise for prolonged durations by improving lactate shuttling. Lactate is a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism, which can also be used as fuel by your muscles. For as long as your body can clear fatigue byproducts faster than their being produced, the exercise intensity remains sustainable. As a result, the greater your lactate shuttling capability the greater your ability to sustain high exercise intensities for long periods of time.
PNOE Zone 5
Zone 5 training will improve your VO2max and peak power output capability (e.g. maximum speed or cycling wattage). This exercise intensity is sustainable for 60 to 120 seconds and requires one to train at his maximum potential.
Why should I care about training zones?
Regardless of age, gender, and fitness level, every person has one or more systems posing a limitation to fitness or health.
Targeting these limitations effectively requires the precision that stems from focusing your cardio and interval training to the zone(s) that will bring about the adaptations needed to overcome them.
The PNOE metabolic analyzer provides gold-standard accuracy in determining your training zones along with the plan that puts them to effective use.
Understanding how your body responds metabolically differently and building your program around your metabolism is a foundational step toward maximizing your workout’s efficiency and achieving your health or performance goals faster and less effort.
If what you are doing now is not giving you the desired results then let’s stop, pause and push RESET!
Are you ready to get started on following a personalized program to help you reach your goals?