How do you BURN FAT, GET STRONGER & IMPROVE PERFORMACE?
- Adaptations: Fueling for the stress at hand
- Fuel in and around training
- To increase energy, cognition, hit heavy loads, improve recovery
- Recovery post workout
- Avoid fasted exercise
- Manipulate training and body composition
- Fueling for the stress at hand
- Give the body fuel to hit hard high intensities
- IF you need to lose weight- add in 10-20 reduction in evening away from training
- To at less, train more = low energy availability = low thyroid, increased catabolism, increase in body fat
The benefits of FASTED exercise – based on men to increase fatty acid breakdown for fuel; increase fat burn but not increase performance
- Women naturally shuttle carbs into endometrial lining via estrogen/progesterone = naturally fat adapted
- Hormone Kisspeptin – down regulates thyroid and metabolism – hormone dysfunction
Women – improve performance with pre-workout fuel 100-150 calories to access glucose when training harder; drops cortisol levels; fuel to hit heavy loads: train harder and improve recovery
- Pre strength workouts: 15-20g protein
- Pre HIIT hard intense workouts: 15-20g protein + 30g carbs
- Post workout 40g protein after workout (protein synthesis)
Short Intensity Workouts:
- 30 second or less all out sprint, 2-3 minute recover
- Improve metabolic control; 95-110%
- #1 method over hormone therapy; subset of HIIT (1-2 minutes), SIT 2x week
- more resilient as get closer to ovarian failure; fatigue, brain fog, body fat increase = train lower volume and higher intensity
- Strength training 3x week
- Increase quality of workouts, race specific on weekends (easy), strength building focus priorities with SIT
How do we burn fat with exercise – fueling or not to fuel?
Dr. Andy Gaplin on Training & Fueling for Endurance:
I am going to be experimenting with pre workout fuel to match higher intensity days or back to back workouts- or when another workout is in the next eight hour window.
- Efficient Carbohydrate Digestion Assimilation and Mitigated Gut Distress Race+ starch (HBCD) has been predigested with enzymes creating a high molecular weight, highly branched carbohydrate for rapid transit through the stomach.
- Researchers have highlighted HBCD having 30% faster rise of blood glucose, when compared to a glucose-only fluid.
- No sucrose, fructose, maltodextrin or sugar-alcohols are used to avoid Gut/GI irritation and distress.
- Race+ avoids the use of fructose to mitigate the risk of interfering with GLUT-4 (glucose) muscle-cell transporters.
- Race+ avoids the use of fructose to mitigate the risk of interfering with GLUT-4 (glucose) muscle-cell transporters.
- Race+ includes Glutamine to further support fuel-oxidative (energy) supply to muscles, and mitigate exercise heat-triggered gut membrane permeability and subsequent higher inflammatory loads.
SFUELS GO LONGER RULE 1:
- DO NOT consume insulin triggering grains, starch, simple sugars or large amounts of dairy on race morning.
- Target low-carb cereals, eggs, coffee/tea, low-carb fruits like berries, or SFuels LIFE bar, SFuels TRAIN as best pre-race meal considerations.
- Complete the first 30-60 minutes of your race with NO intake of sugars/carbs.
- Use SFuels TRAIN for hydration-electrolyte support in this first 30-60minute race period if desired.
- Begin using SFuels RACE+ after the first 30-60mins of racing, competition or high-intensity training .
- Applying this to your race-day prep enables muscle cell glucose transporters, to rapidly move to the muscle cell wall, open glucose channels, and allow the free flow of glucose into the muscle cells,without insulin.
- Muscle cells are better positioned for improved simultaneous oxidation of both fats and glucose, thereby providing a smooth supply of energy and power.
- By enabling higher fat oxidation during high intensity racing, athletes will burn less glycogen (sparing effect) and also reduce the risks of known gut/GI distress from simple sugars like sucrose (fructose+glucose) and fructose.
- Train and test your fuel-water dosage requirements against expected race day intensities, temperature, elevation and duration.
*Rate of Perceived exertion is provided as a guide here to help, translate exertion signs of rising intensity levels to approximate lactate threshold levels – and where oxidation rates shift between fat and carbohydrate.
Pre-Race and Racing: Fat/Carb Optimization
- PRIMING Focus and Maximum Fat Oxidation: Research findings1/2 are suggesting that a measured dose of caffeine for both improved mental-cognitive focus and heightened maximal fat oxidation during exercise.
- By adding a measured dose of caffiene ~30-60mins prior, and during your racing/competition, athletes can prime, and continue to prime optimal focus on competing, whilst ensuring maximal fat oxidation continues, in seeking support glycogen sparing as much as possible.
- As intensity levels shift during the race from changes in elevation, wind, heat/humidity, competitive racing dynamics, and exhaustion carbohydrate oxidation will increase, and therefore carbohydrate intakes will need to increase.
- However, athletes with high fat-oxidation efficiency will burn more fat, and preserve glycogen stores better, and therefore require less carbohydrate intake than high-carb (less efficient) athletes.
- Fuel high-intensity training and racing by simultaneously burning fats and carbs.
- Using pre-digested branch chained starches with MCT oils, while avoiding added simple sugars, glucose, fructose, syrups, sugar alcohols and maltodextrins.
- Enable rapid transit of calories through upper GI tract while racing, by ONLY using low osmolality carbs (pre-digested branch chain starches) and medium-chain triglycerides.
- Avoid slow moving carbs like glucose, and higher risk gut irritants like fructose, and sugar alcohols.
- Support lowered risk of exercise induced GI/Gut distress and delayed onset muscle soreness by fueling-feeding muscles and gut membranes with L-Glutamine.
- Support dependable neuro-muscular contractions, and efficient gut absorption by supplementing with Sodium, Calcium, Potassium and Gut friendly Magnesium
- Extending the utility of race proven SFuels RACE+ drink, athletes can now rely on a concentrated Race+ creme-like gel to power them through the run finish, of their most demanding races.
- Using a higher concentrate of cyclic branch-chain starches, plus MCT oils, electrolytes and glutamine, SFuels RACE+ Gel powder compacts down into a highly compact formula, to store carry through the run leg of your longer half and full-distance triathlons and ultras.
Pre-Race (night before) Preparation
- add 1.5oz/45ml water, to each 1 serve (37.5Gr/Scoop) of SFuels Race+ Gel Powder
(3oz/90mls when mixed).
- Mix thoroughly with a fork, until smooth gel creme-like consistency.
- For higher concentration, use 2 serves to 45-60ml water and mix.
- Store Race+ Gel in SFuels Race+ Gel Bullets
- Do not refrigerate – Keep Race+ Gel concentrate at room temperature, prior to the race.
- As an option, mix in SFuels PRIMED caffiene mix to one of your SFuels Gel Bullets or flasks, to support maximal fat oxidation and mental focus through to the finish line.
- add 1.5oz/45ml water, to each 1 serve (37.5Gr/Scoop) of SFuels Race+ Gel Powder
What about the AGING FEMALE ATHLETE who is trying to improve fat loss, performance and longevity??
Dr. Stacy Sims teaches about HIIT & SIT training in her MENOPAUSE 2.0 course:
Understand that hormonal changes during menopause can impact metabolism, including fat utilization. Hormones like estrogen play a role in how your body stores and uses fat.
Body Composition Changes for the Aging Female Athlete
Dr. Stacy Sims
- HIIT intervals (10-60 seconds all out hard as you can go/fast with 30-90 seconds recovery
- Resistance Training 1-6 reps, 3-5 sets, 2-4x week
- Prioritizing Protein 30-50g per meal, 3x day = 100g or more quality clean animal based protein
- Strategic natures carbs around exercise to help shuttle glucose into the cell for fuel before HIIT
- Less volume but higher intensity to create body composition change and aerobic fitness for menopausal female
- Total fat mass, lean body mass and muscle mass only changed with HIIT training with Resistance Training
- Resistance training increases percentage of muscle mass
- HIIT Training changed abdominal fat mass but not increase lean body mass
- Combine resistance training to moderate changes of body composition with HIIT (right kind)
- Fat changes – lipid turnover
Lipid Turnover as we age – what is happening to how are body uses and stores fat with changes in body fat
- Its not about using more fat and burning fat
- Its about changing the rate of fat use by tissue
- Lipid fat use by the body
- Increased use by the body
- Dysregulation in the muscle cell as we can’t pull in glucose into the cell as well + inflammation + oxidative stress
- Signals to increase lipid update into muscle and adipose tissue as a storage factor for the increased need of fat fuel
- Results in need for HIIT & SIT Training: short, sharp and low volume (5 minutes or less) and total time under 20 minutes or else you are not doing high intensities to create stress and adaptation
- HIIT 80% or more of max HR with longer intervals 1-4 minutes (5 minute max) with variable rest
- SIT training – 30 seconds or less sprint all out intervals
- HIIT Training = Metabolic Control & Cardiovascular fitness – glucose to keep muscle contraction going + longer stimulus changes blood vessel; metabolic homeostasis (needs certain amount of glucose to keep it going); 1 or more minute of hard work – needs glucose to fuel work so teach body to pull glucose in and become more sensitive to glucose at rest (and insulin)
- SIT Training = induce epigenetic changes in muscle cell to improve fast twitch & top end metabolic anaerobic capacity to improve ability to pull in more glucose into cell without using insulin makes muscle more efficient and effective;
- Mitochondria -aerobic metabolism with 1 minute or longer we do get into aerobic metabolism
- Anti-oxidation = improves response and reduces oxidative stress
- Acute inflammatory response – working at hard intensity will induce inflammatory response
- Total work time is 20 minutes or less – plus intervals are not more than 5 minutes at once and recovery time down to Zone 1 is essential.
- Epigenetics to pull insulin – fuel
Why HIIT Training?
- Metabolic homeostasis – “getting your body to understand that is needs a certain amount of glucose to keep muscle contraction going”
- Improved pathways to skeletal muscle = mitochondrial adaptation = more mitochondria in the muscle
- Improves microvascular blood flow = “The microcirculation is the circulation of the blood in the smallest blood vessels, the micro vessels of the microvasculature present within organ tissues.
- Increased blood flow WITHIN the muscle: We have better control of our blood flow – stimulate small capillaries to grow and improve blood flow into the muscle due to the strong stress of HIIT
- Transport available carbohydrate/glucose within the skeletal muscle
- Anti-oxidation upregulation of oxidative response to ROS – reactive oxidative species
- Greater GROWTH HORMONE response and increases natural form of Testosterone
- Decreases estrogen and counters cortisol – estrogen is not needed so can be used other places
- HIIT is a strong stimulus to decrease abdominal fat – changes body composition and positive changes with body weight
- Improve blood vessel function (improve blood flow into muscle) and cardiovascular health
- Pre menopause vs. Peri & Post Menopausal changes = enhancing of a pathway that regulate genes for mitochondrial adaptations and content in the muscle = more mitochondria in the muscle with HIIT training more in transitional phase
- Oxidative metabolism = increase in lipid uptake, not storing lipid/fat but using lipid/fat (more into muscle but using more) = helps change
- increase in lipid uptake that is not being stored but being used
- Uptake in muscle cell but we are using more
- Upregulation to oxidative response
- More carbohydrate/glucose into muscle
- Oxidative metabolism = increase in fat fuel into muscle cell to be USED not stored
- Better anti-oxidation capacity – upregulation to response of ROS
- Body composition changes
Why SIIT Training: 10-30 seconds ZONE 5 to recovery down to ZONE 1
- SIT = induce epigenetic changes in muscle cell to improve fast twitch & top end metabolic anaerobic capacity to improve ability to pull in more glucose into cell without using insulin makes muscle more efficient and effective
- We need some carbohydrates to fuel the HIGH intensity exercise
- Shuttle glucose/carbs into muscle cells via insulin and/or GLUT4 Transporters
- GLUT4 “gates” work to pull glucose into muscle cell
- ATP-CP fuel for sprints – glycolysis is next step to break down glucose in cell to provide fuel
- We need enzyme to stimulate glucose metabolism glycolysis – pull glucose into cell for fuel
- Increase in Glycogen synthase to convert glucose into glycogen – more enzyme to store muscle and liver glycogen
- Activate PROTEIN kinase genes to tell body to regenerate itself; enhance protein synthesis and carbs to help with fueling high intensity = increase sensitivity =improve glucose homeostasis
- Using the glucose helps reduce insulin insensitivity/improves insulin sensitivity
- Overall glucose homeostasis is improved as a result
- Strong intense stress of the SPRINT intervals – need more carbs to fuel intensity
- Increased carb glucose intake into cells
- End up using more BODY FAT AT REST –
- Results in more LIPID REMOVAL and utilization
- Increases our lean mass and decreasing fat mass
- Improves FAST TWITCH Muscle Fibers
- Improves the “top end Metabolic Anaerobic Capacity” zone 5
- Epigenetic changes to make the muscle more efficient and effective
- Allow our muscles to pull in more glucose into muscle cells without the need of insulin
- Without estrogen and progesterone around to help
SIT EXAMPLES: 10-30 seconds all out, long recovery, 5-10 rounds
- Cardio machines as treadmill, bike assault bike, row erg or ellipitcal machine: go hard as you can for 10-30 seconds then super slow recovery 2 minutes
- Box jumps, jumps or jump squats with 30 second recovery
- Kettlebell swings with 30 seconds recovery
- Work up to 4-5 reps then build to 10 rounds total (max 10 rounds if done right!)
- Its not about how many rounds you do- but the intensity you are doing = QUALITY over QUANTITY
Here’s a more detailed explanation of how this LIPID UPTAKE with SIT stressors- process works and contributes to changes in body composition:
- Carbohydrates for High-Intensity Exercise:
- High-intensity exercises, such as SPRINT intervals, require a significant amount of energy.
- Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of energy for intense activities because they can be broken down quickly to provide fuel.
- Increased Glucose Intake into Cells:
- When you consume carbohydrates, they are broken down into glucose, which enters your bloodstream.
- During intense exercise, your body increases its glucose uptake into muscle cells to provide the necessary energy for the activity. This is facilitated by the hormone insulin.
- Fat Utilization at Rest:
- After intense exercise, especially when you’ve used up a substantial amount of carbohydrates, your body undergoes a process known as the “afterburn effect” or excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC).
- During EPOC, your body continues to burn calories and uses a higher percentage of stored fat for energy during the post-exercise recovery period.
- This increased fat utilization is partly due to the body’s attempt to replenish glycogen stores (carbohydrate stores) and repair muscle tissue damaged during intense exercise.
- Effects on Body Composition:
- Consistently engaging in high-intensity interval training like SPRINT intervals, combined with appropriate carbohydrate intake before and after exercise, can lead to positive changes in body composition.
- The high-intensity exercise helps burn calories and increase metabolic rate, contributing to fat loss.
- Adequate carbohydrate intake ensures that your body has the energy it needs for these intense workouts and helps preserve muscle mass. This is crucial because maintaining muscle mass can further boost your resting metabolic rate, leading to more fat utilization at rest.
- Over time, this combination of factors can lead to increased lean mass and decreased fat mass.
It’s important to note that individual responses to exercise and nutrition can vary. Some people may benefit from a slightly higher carbohydrate intake before intense workouts to optimize performance, while others may do well with lower carbohydrate levels.
Consulting with a registered dietitian or a sports nutritionist can help you tailor your carbohydrate intake and overall nutrition plan to your specific needs and goals.
In summary, the synergy between intense exercise, carbohydrate intake, and post-exercise fat utilization can contribute to positive changes in body composition, including increased lean mass and decreased fat mass, especially when this approach is consistently followed over time.
Menopausal women experience hormonal changes, including a decrease in estrogen levels, which can impact how their bodies use fat as fuel during exercise and post-exercise.
Here’s an explanation of how this process works and how to optimize lipid uptake and fat utilization for changing body composition:
- Hormonal Changes during Menopause:
- Estrogen plays a role in regulating metabolism and fat storage. As women go through menopause, estrogen levels drop significantly.
- Lower estrogen levels can lead to an increase in fat accumulation, especially around the abdomen. This is due to changes in how the body stores and utilizes fat.
- Fat Utilization during Exercise:
- During exercise, the body primarily uses carbohydrates and fats for energy. The ratio of carbohydrate to fat utilization can vary depending on the intensity and duration of exercise.
- With lower estrogen levels, the body may be more inclined to use fat as a fuel source during exercise, as estrogen has been shown to influence carbohydrate metabolism. This can be advantageous for women looking to burn stored body fat.
- Post-Exercise Fat Utilization:
- After exercise, the body continues to burn fat for energy during the recovery phase. This process is influenced by various factors, including insulin sensitivity and muscle mass.
- Women going through menopause can benefit from incorporating resistance training into their exercise routines. Building and maintaining lean muscle mass can help increase the overall metabolic rate, allowing the body to burn more calories, including stored fat, even at rest.
- Optimizing Lipid Uptake and Fat Utilization:
- Diet: Menopausal women should focus on a balanced diet that includes healthy fats, lean proteins, and complex carbohydrates. A diet rich in whole foods can help regulate blood sugar levels, making it easier for the body to access and burn stored fat for energy.
- Interval Training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can be effective in increasing fat oxidation during and after exercise. Short bursts of intense exercise followed by brief periods of rest can enhance metabolic rate and fat utilization.
- Stress Management: Chronic stress can disrupt hormonal balance and promote fat storage. Stress-reduction techniques such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing exercises can be beneficial.
- Adequate Sleep: Getting enough quality sleep is crucial for hormonal balance and overall metabolic health.
- Consultation with a Healthcare Professional: It’s advisable for menopausal women to consult with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian to develop an exercise and nutrition plan tailored to their specific needs and goals.
In summary, menopausal women can use fat as fuel during exercise and post-exercise due to changes in estrogen levels, but they can optimize this process by focusing on a balanced diet, incorporating resistance and interval training, managing stress, getting enough sleep, and seeking professional guidance. Increasing lipid uptake and using stored body fat for energy can contribute to changes in body composition, helping to reduce body fat and improve overall health.
Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC), often referred to as the “afterburn effect,” plays a role in improving lipid uptake and the breakdown of stored fat, ultimately contributing to fat loss. Here’s how EPOC works in this context:
- Energy Expenditure After Exercise:
- EPOC refers to the increased rate of oxygen consumption and calorie expenditure that occurs after an intense exercise session.
- When you engage in high-intensity exercise, such as weightlifting, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or intense cardio workouts, your body requires more oxygen to recover and return to its pre-exercise state.
- Depletion of Energy Stores:
- During high-intensity exercise, your body relies primarily on carbohydrates (glycogen) for energy, as they can be quickly converted to fuel.
- After exercise, your body works to replenish depleted glycogen stores in muscles and the liver. This process requires energy and is one of the factors contributing to the increased calorie expenditure during EPOC.
- Elevated Heart Rate and Metabolism:
- EPOC also involves elevated heart rate and increased metabolism during the post-exercise recovery phase.
- Your body needs energy to repair muscle tissue that may have been damaged during the workout, maintain core body temperature, and restore hormonal balance.
- Fat Utilization During EPOC:
- While carbohydrates are primarily used during intense exercise, the body shifts to burning a higher proportion of stored fat for energy during EPOC, particularly as glycogen stores are replenished.
- The increased energy expenditure and metabolic rate during EPOC create an energy deficit, and the body taps into fat stores to meet this deficit. This can contribute to fat loss over time.
- Duration and Intensity Matter:
- The magnitude and duration of EPOC are influenced by the intensity and duration of the exercise. Longer and more intense workouts tend to create a larger EPOC effect.
- High-intensity activities, such as HIIT and weightlifting, are particularly effective at triggering EPOC because they demand more energy and result in greater oxygen debt.
- Consistency is Key:
- To see significant improvements in fat loss due to EPOC, it’s important to engage in regular, challenging workouts. Consistency over time is crucial for sustained fat loss.
- Nutrition and Recovery:
- Proper nutrition and recovery also play a role in maximizing the benefits of EPOC. Adequate post-workout nutrition can help with muscle recovery and replenishment of glycogen stores, preparing your body for the next workout.
In summary, EPOC contributes to fat loss by increasing calorie expenditure and promoting the utilization of stored fat for energy during the post-exercise recovery phase.
To optimize the effects of EPOC on fat loss, include high-intensity workouts in your fitness routine and maintain a balanced diet to support recovery and overall health.
The process of replenishing glycogen stores and repairing muscle tissue after intense exercise indirectly contributes to improved fat oxidation (lipolysis) and fat loss in menopausal females through several mechanisms:
- Increased Energy Expenditure: The energy required to restore glycogen stores and repair muscle tissue post-exercise increases overall calorie expenditure. This elevated metabolic rate persists during the recovery period, contributing to a greater total calorie burn.
- Caloric Deficit: When the energy expenditure during the post-exercise recovery phase exceeds the caloric intake, it creates a caloric deficit. A caloric deficit is essential for fat loss because the body must rely on stored energy sources, including fat, to meet its energy demands.
- Glycogen Depletion: During intense exercise, the body depletes its glycogen stores. When glycogen stores are low, the body shifts its reliance from carbohydrates to fat as a primary energy source. This process encourages the breakdown of stored body fat (lipolysis) to provide fuel for various physiological functions, including muscle contraction and metabolism.
- Hormonal Changes: Intense exercise, including resistance training, can stimulate the release of hormones such as growth hormone and catecholamines (e.g., epinephrine and norepinephrine). These hormones promote lipolysis and the use of fatty acids as an energy source, further enhancing fat oxidation.
- Muscle Building: Muscle tissue is metabolically active, meaning it burns calories even at rest. Engaging in resistance training during intense workouts helps build and maintain lean muscle mass. As muscle mass increases, the resting metabolic rate also increases. This elevated metabolic rate results in more calories burned, including those from stored fat.
- Insulin Sensitivity: Intense exercise can improve insulin sensitivity, which is essential for efficient glucose and fat utilization. When cells are more sensitive to insulin, they are better at taking up glucose and fatty acids for energy, reducing the likelihood of excess fat storage.
For menopausal females, these effects can be particularly beneficial because they can help offset the natural tendency for fat accumulation and metabolic changes that often occur with declining estrogen levels.
Engaging in regular, intense exercise and maintaining proper nutrition to support recovery can promote fat loss and improve body composition.
It’s important to note that individual responses to exercise and nutrition can vary.
Consulting with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian to create a personalized exercise and nutrition plan tailored to specific needs and goals can be highly beneficial, especially during the menopausal transition.
Resistance training, also known as strength or weight training, offers several benefits for improving insulin sensitivity and enhancing fat utilization, which can help reduce the risk of fat storage.
Here’s how resistance training accomplishes these outcomes:
- Increased Muscle Mass:
- Resistance training promotes the development and maintenance of lean muscle mass. Muscle tissue is more metabolically active than fat tissue, meaning it burns more calories at rest.
- As you build and maintain muscle mass through resistance training, your resting metabolic rate (the number of calories your body burns at rest) increases. This enhanced metabolic rate can help with overall calorie expenditure and fat utilization.
- Improved Glucose Uptake:
- Resistance training increases the efficiency of glucose uptake by muscle cells. When you lift weights, your muscles need energy to perform the exercises, and they become more receptive to insulin.
- Enhanced insulin sensitivity means that your body can more effectively clear glucose from the bloodstream and transport it into muscle cells for energy. This can help regulate blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of insulin resistance, a condition associated with fat storage and obesity.
- Enhanced Lipolysis:
- Resistance training can stimulate lipolysis, the breakdown of stored fat into fatty acids for energy. During and after resistance workouts, the body may rely on both carbohydrates and fat as fuel sources.
- The increased energy expenditure during resistance training contributes to a calorie deficit, which is essential for fat loss. As stored fat is used to meet energy demands, it can help reduce overall body fat.
- Metabolic Health Improvements:
- Resistance training has been shown to have positive effects on various markers of metabolic health, including improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and better lipid profiles (e.g., lower triglycerides and higher HDL cholesterol).
- These improvements in metabolic health can reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and contribute to more effective fat utilization.
- Post-Exercise Afterburn:
- Like high-intensity cardiovascular exercise, resistance training also induces an afterburn effect (EPOC) due to the energy required for muscle repair and recovery.
- This post-exercise calorie burn can help with fat loss and body composition changes, especially when combined with a balanced diet and adequate rest.
It’s essential to note that the benefits of resistance training on insulin sensitivity and fat utilization are not limited to menopausal women; they apply to individuals of all ages and genders. Incorporating regular resistance training into your fitness routine, along with cardiovascular exercise and proper nutrition, can lead to a healthier body composition, better insulin regulation, and enhanced fat metabolism.